Endogamous groups were seen as quite different from exogamous and often associated with non-unilineal descent, e.g. Patrilineal Descent and Personal Kindred in Japan1 HARUMI BEFU University of Missouri INTRODUCTION S YSTEMS of descent may be conveniently divided into three major cate- gories, following Davenport (1959) : unilineal, nonunilineal, and bilateral. For instance, Native American groups have clans, an ancient lineage that is often just referred to as an animal (wolf, raven). JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Lineages trace lines of descent to the same ancestor. Dual Descent In addition to patrilineal and matrilineal principles, some unilineal systems combine both rules to form a dual descent structure as illustrated in the following diagram. Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. However, representative groups with unilineal descent from all the geographic areas of the world have not been studied. In this type of descent, relatives from both mother’s and father’s side are equally important. Potentially, an individual can use many ties. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. The aim of the thesis is to see how individuals manipulate their membership of cognatic descent groups to maximize their advantages in various social contexts. The journal advances the Association's mission through publishing articles that add to, integrate, synthesize, and interpret anthropological knowledge; commentaries and essays on issues of importance to the discipline; and reviews of books, films, sound recordings, and exhibits. Clans can be quite big, with a large number of people. Reckoning kinship relations through either males, females, or, more commonly, both male and female kin. Tuareg. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. Request Permissions. Description 1.1 Name of society, language, and language family: The Sioux, sometimes known by alternate names referring to their band or dialect such as the Dakota Sioux, Nakota Sioux and Systematic Kinship Terminologies. Cultural Anthropology, 2nd edition. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/kinterms/termsys.html, accessed February 24, 2015. http://wikieducator.org/Cultural_Anthropology/Social_Institutions/Kinship. In this section, we will look at kinship patterns. All Rights Reserved. A preview of the concept of "kinship" as used by anthropologists. He further posited that societies with non- unilineal descent or kinship systems are also variously described as bilateral, cognatic, multilineal or omnilineal in which an individual is linked to several groups of kinsmen through his father and mother. And, this is the form of descent practised in most modern societies. Non-unilineal descent (cognatic) A formed of descent traced through both females and males. Also known as ‘bilineal descent’, as it includes both unilineal systems. These patterns determine how we connect with others through descent and marriage. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Unilineal: Descent is traced through only one parent. Cognatic dictionary definition cognatic defined YourDictionary. Cultural Anthropology: Understanding Ourselves and Others. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. Clans may segment into subclans or lineages, and genealogical… of Contents. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. For instance, between a father and a daughter there is one link in the chain of familial connections. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non-unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic descent: bilateral and ambilineal. Phartries. The lineal principle does not come into operation at any point. 2002. Non-Unilineal Descent: The principle whereby descent is reckoned by means other than exclusively through the father and his male ancestors or the mother and her female ancestors (RF-147; NG-200ff). Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. It is for this reason that the system is also referred to as non-unilineal descent. 2010. Nonunilineal Descent Groups. Please make sure to choose a rating. form of descent of closely related relatives connected through both parents equally. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, p. 366-370. Ambilineality is a cognatic descent system in which individuals may be affiliated either to their father's or mother's group. Unilineal descent group usually comprising ten or more generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step by step their exact connection to that ancestor . 9., Africa and the Middle East. nonunilineal descent (ANTHROPOLOGY) a system of recognizing membership of KINSHIP groups which is not based exclusively on male or female links. Made up of a number of clans considered to be related. Cognatic descent is a form. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. Bilateral descent. Descent has special influence when rights to succession, inheritance, or residence follow kinship lines. These groups do not emphasize kinship links traced exclusively through a single sex and membership is not assigned at birth. by Daniel A. Grossman. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. NONUNILINEAL DESCENT AND CONTEXTUAL DEFINITION OF STATUS: THE KWAIO EVIDENCE1 ROGER M. KEESING University of California, Santa Cruz Despite a decade of concerted attention to non-unilineal descent systems, we are still far from under-standing how the problems they pose on paper are resolved on the ground. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic. Moieties are also linked clans; however, in this case, there are only two clans involved. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. 1 Star - I hated it 2 Stars - I didn't like it 3 Stars - It was OK 4 Stars - I liked it 5 Stars - I loved it. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Weaker with flexibility. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Lavenda Robert H. and Emily A. Schultz. In this arrangement Ego is a member of two separate and fundamentally distinct groups: a uterine group through his mother (in red) and an agnatic group through his father (in blue). The children are considered to be equally descended through both parents. Here descent is traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both the mother and the father. It is a basic system of social organization. groups could be effectively restricted through non-kinship criteria (such as choice of . Clan. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Kin that are related to us through descent (parent to child) are called consanguine or blood relatives. Bonvillain, Nancy. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Crapo, Richley. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. Bilateral Descent. Anthropological data suggests that cognatic descent arose in cultures where warfare is uncommon and there is a political organization that can organize and fight on … Go to Table Descent groups help to define the pool of potential mates, the group of people who are obligated to help in economic and political issues, and may even dictate which religion is followed, particularly in unilineal descent groups. Phratries are groups of clans (at least three clans) who are believed to be related by kinship. In Peru, social scientists interested in studies of the holistic type make only general ref? Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. We also call it non-unilineal descent system. Synonyms are COGNATIC or (less frequently) BILINEAL DESCENT. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Harris, Marvin and Oran Johnson. 1995. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/case_studies/turkish/turkterm.html, accessed February 24, 2015. Anthropologists oftentimes discuss how many links there are between individuals. The term Cognatic means akin to both parents.The underlying principle in cognatic or non-unilineal systems is thus the affiliation of an individual with a group of kin who are related to him/her through both his/her parents,irrespective of whether kinship linkages are traced through the mother or the father. Such is the case in the Andean region, especially in Peru. Double descent is a type of cognatic descent where the ego is a member of both his/her father’s patrilineage and mother’s matrilineage simultaneously. American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000 Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. Share your thoughts Complete your review. A matriline is traced through the mother’s family line and partrilines are traced through the father’s. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. 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